Semen Markovich( Shimen Meerovitch) Dubnov - a Russian Jewish historian, publicist and public figure, one of the classics of the creators of the Jewish people and the history of science.He wrote in Russian and Yiddish.
S.M.Dubnov was born in 1860 in Mstislavl, Mogilev province.He received a traditional, at that time, Jewish education, but very early departed from the orthodox religion.General education S.Dubnov received independently.In his youth he was strongly influenced by positivist philosophy and progressive ideas and E. Renan H. Taine.
In 1880-1906 years S.M.Dubnov lived in St. Petersburg and Odessa, where he became friendly with Ahad Ha-Amom, and in Vilna.In 1906
S.M.Dubnov settled in St. Petersburg, where he began teaching at Pilot Jewish history: since 1908 - on the course of Oriental Studies, which was founded by Baron D. Ginzburg, and since 1919 - in the Jewish People's University.S.M.Dubnov was one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Historical and Ethnographic Society, and in the years 1909-18, he was the editor, published by the Society zhurnalaYu "Jewish Antiquities".S.M.Dubnov also became the founder of the historical journal in Hebrew "He-Avar"( vols. 1-2, P., 1918), which led the "hasidiana" department.
Parish in Germany of Hitler S.M.Dubnova forced to leave Germany.He had a choice in the invitation: in Palestine and in the US, but, alas, made the fateful decision and in August 1933 moved to Latvia, because he wanted to be closer to their children and grandchildren.But still, what is important, he wanted to be closer to its main reader of Russian Jewry.In Riga S.M.Dubnov completed and released all three of his volumes of memoirs( zaklyuchitelnyy- in 1940).
Latvia's accession to the Soviet Union in 1940 created for S.M.Dubnova very real danger: vedb its total rejection of the theory and practice of Bolshevism was well known to all.Back in 1920 he placed in the publication in the European and American press a few of your articles with a very sharp criticism of the Soviet national policy.In turn, at the end of the 1920s in the Soviet Union were completely removed all his works, and he himself ostracized.However, while an elderly scholar was arrested.
Riga found S.M.Dubnova German occupation in 1941.There are several legends about the last days of
S.M.Dubnova."Eyewitnesses" tell us that when he was arrested by the Latvian police, an elderly historian shouted in Yiddish: "IDN, shraybt farshraybt un. .."( "Jews Burn, burn everything!").We can say that it is known only that he was killed in December 1941 in one of the first actions by the complete destruction of the Riga ghetto.